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History of the Arctic Exploration

S. Lappo, Y. Egorov, M. Virsis, Y. Nalbandov, E. Makovetskaya, L. Virsis
PP. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences

I. Smolyar, S. Levitus
World Data Center for Oceanography, Silver Spring
Ocean Climate Laboratory,  National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS / NOAA USA


Regular oceanographic observations in the Eastern Arctic seas started in the second half of the 19th century. By 1941, hundreds of expeditions had been conducted, and a significant amount of data on the physical and biological characteristics of the marine environment were collected.  The greater part of these data are in archives in difficult-to-access publications. This makes them unavailable to the international scientific community. The aim of the present work is to introduce the data from 1870 to 1941 into electronic form for use in the studies of the World Ocean. As a result each expedition is presented on this website in the following format:

  • The source of the data
  • The full text of the original article
  • Data distribution plot
  • Primary data in the format of electronic tables

Arrow to data distribution map MAP Data distribution map

Arrow to data inventory by cruises INVENTORY Data inventory by cruises, data access

  Last modified:    Thu, 23-Apr-2015 19:57 UTC
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