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TABLE: ACT

ACT -- Parameter action code (Act_Code)
CODE MEANING
AC Assign a new cruise number
AS NODC SQLP for adding a new surfacecode vlaue
AV Add a Value in the data
BB Bad Bottle data, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
BD Bathy data which is rejected, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
BO Bowing Problem or Bowed Mixed layer. This is an apparently inconsistent temperature measurement observed with an early version of the Bathy systems SA-810 XBT recorder. Erroneous, gradual increase (bowing) in the temperature profile with depth that is most notable in the mixed layer zone. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
CF Change a quality flag
CL Contact Lost (Probe records before entering water), CSIRO Code (CSCB)
CO Constant. The parameter exhibits a constant value which is considered to be erroneous when compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region.
CR Create record
CS Surface Spike, caused by a minor start-up transient problem that leads to inaccurate temperature measurements in the top few meters of a temperature profile. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
CT Constant temperature, hit bottom.The temperature profile exhibits constant temperature which is considered to be erroneous when compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region. The constant temperatures could occur over all of the profile or part of it. (The reasons could be sensor failure,depth calculation error, nose falling off the XBT, XBT sitting on the bottom,etc.)
CU Cusping. Bathy Systems Leakage or cusping is a malfunction particular to early versions of the Bathy Systems SA-810 unit. Leakage associated with this recorder/processor causes a characteristic cusping signal to be embedded in the profile. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
CV Change value
DA Delete Top of a profile. From top of a profile to a depth specified in the HISTORY GROUP. IFREMER Code
DB Delete Bottom of a profile. From a depth specified in the HISTORY GROUP to end of the profile. IFREMER Code
DC Station was checked by duplicate checking software
DE Depth Error, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
DL Delete interval in a profile. Between 2 values specified in the HISTORY GROUP to end of the profile. IFREMER Code
DM Match for MEDS-Delayed found by edes at NODC
DP Duplicate Drop or Depth Corrected, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
DR Driver Error, The Sippican MK-9 timing delay problem, is an error in the recognition of the start of descent of an XBT (i.e., probe contact with water) that results in a depth error. Data errors are highly erratic and random in nature, and in most cases the degree of depth error is indeterminable in data collected in the field under normal conditions. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
DU Duplicate Drop, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
ED Edit a parameter value
EF Eddy / Front / Current. Eddies, oceanic fronts and currents are common meso scale features in the oceans. An eddy, front or current appears as an increase/decrease in temperature over large depth ranges when compared to a neighbouring profile. A temperature displacement can sometimes be seen in alternating or sequential drops as the ship track crosses a current, eddy system or frontal region. Confirmation of the feature is established if neighbouring (usually repeat) profile pairs each side of the front show similar temperatures at depth. Temperature sections along the ship track can be used as further evidence these features are real. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
ER Early Recording error
FB Flag to the Bottom
FR Flag Range
FS Fine structure error: leakage, PET fault, cusping, sticking bit. The temperature profile exhibits erroneous fine structure when compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region. (The reasons could be signal leakage, XBT recording system failures (sticking bit, cusping, PET Fault, etc), complete instrument failure, etc)
GL Gradient Long (inversion as opposed to spike)
GS Gradient Short (spike)
HB Hit Bottom. When the probe hits the bottom, the temperature trace usually goes isothermal. Contact with the bottom is often indicated by a small horizontal spike or undulation. The spike can be due to overheating of the thermistors or physical contact with the bottom. Data recorded beyond the hit bottom event is rejected as erroneous. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
HF High Frequency Interference. As for spikes, high frequency interference is caused by electrical, or electromagnetic, interference, but results in continual spiking over a wide range of depths. Interference may sometimes appear severe but the temperature records underneath can often be successfully interpolated by filtering. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
IP This history group operates on the complete input record
IV Inversion. Confirmed increase in temperature with depth observed at some point in the profile. Confirmation is established through the observation of the same feature in a neighbouring (usually a repeat) drop. These features usually occur is specific regions. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
LE Leakage. Appears as apparent structure of "jitter" over a range of depths (or the entire profile) that is considered to be unusual as there is little evidence of similar structure in the region, and or there is no confirmation from a neighbouring profile. This flag can be used if there is some element of doubt whether the XBT system is working correctly, i.e., if there is a suspected signal leakage problem with the recording equipment. Leakage can also be a result of insulation penetration which has not healed leading to continuous leakage, or damage to the launcher cable or recorder. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
MB MBT data rejected, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
ML Mixed layer error: bowing. The temperature profile exhibits erroneous features (such as false inversions) in the mixed layer when compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region. (The reasons could be XBT bowing problem, instrument drift, etc).
MO Modulo 10 spikes. It is a data acquisition software problem associated with early versions of the Bathy Systems SA-810 XBT system in which a spike is introduced at 10 point intervals (i.e., every tenth digitization) in the profile data. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
MS Meso-scale feature, CSIRO Code (CSCB)
NG No good trace
NT No Trace. There is either no profile data recorded or the data is completely off-scale. This can be due to a number of reasons such as wire break before the probe makes contact with the water or an observer launching a probe before the system's set-up procedures are complete. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
NU Inversion in Mixed Layer Confirmed. A nub is a special type of inversion in which an increase of temperature with depth is observed within or at the base of the mixed layer. Confirmation is established through the observation of the same feature in a neighbouring (usually a repeat) drop. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
OE Other error. SIO Code (SIPE)
OP OPERATOR ERROR (Wrong Probe Type)
PE Position error. Profile position has been erroneously encoded. Corrected if possible.
PF Pet Fault. The PROTECNO Systems Leakage is a problem specific to the PROTECNO recorder/processor that causes a leakage-type of malfunction. This can often be masked by the temperature gradient. Generally the leakage is more evident toward the bottom of a profile, where the temperature gradient is small. It is a common fault in data recorded by earlier versions of this System. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
PI Inversion Probable. A probable inversion is defined as an increase in temperature with depth observed at some point in the profile, but which is not fully confirmed by a repeat or neighbouring drop. The feature is considered to be probably real as inversions are known to occur in the region or similar features are found in neighbouring drops. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
PL Premature Launch. This is used when the XBT system starts recording data before the probe reaches the water. Usually caused by the launcher/probe getting wet, or faulty cable. The data is shifted up vertically.
PS Fine Structure (Step-Like) Probable. Appears as unconfirmed isothermal or step-like features (including thermostads) observed in a profile over a range of depths (usually 10-100m) or the entire profile. The vertical gradient of the feature or features is substantially different from the back-ground gradient and therefore resembles a cascade or staircase. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
QC Quality Control
RD The profile has gone through a reduction procedure.
RE Repeat Drop. Is defined as an XBT deployed within 15 minutes of another one due to suspected previous probe malfunctions, desire to confirm a suspected real feature, or high density sampling. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
RF Reformat
S4 The history entry has an entry for the one or two profiles actually plotted, and the S4 to indicate the whole profile was flagged.
SA Surface Anomaly. The surface anomaly is a special case of fine structure that is limited to the top 20 metres of the water column. A warm surface layer can sometimes form from solar heating and light winds (often referred to as the afternoon effect). The afternoon effect can warm surface layers of between 2-10 m thick by up to 1DegC. Cooler freshwater layers due to precipitation or riveroutflow can also cause a surface anomaly to develop. A surface anomaly is generally larger than 0.2DegC. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
SF Surface feature error: surface anomaly, chopped surface value. The temperature exhibits erroneous features at the surface when compared to neighbouring profiles and known characteristics of the region. (The reasons could be XBT start-up transients, general instrument equilibration problems, sensors recording prematurely before entering water, etc)
SG Salinity Gradient
SO Flag for temperature, changing the data to class 2. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
SP Spike. Isolated or intermittent spikes can be the result of external electrical or electromagnetic interference that influences the XBT system's output. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
ST Fine Structure (Step-Like) Confirmed. Step-like features or small interleaving observed in a profile over a range of depths, (usually 10-100m) or the entire profile. Thermostads, well-mixed regions where temperature and density vary little with depth, also appear as step like features and so are included in this category. Confirmation is established by observation of the same structure in a repeat or neighbouring drop. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
SV Set a value
TA Temperature anomaly that might be bad data but we decided to accept it for now. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
TD Temperature Difference, A difference in temperature at depth is observed when compared to neighbouring profiles. The temperature difference can occur over the entire profile but the defining feature is the offset at the bottom of the profile. The feature is probably real as eddies, fronts, or currents are known to occur in the region, although there is no exact confirmation from neighbouring profiles. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
TE Time error. Profile date/time has been erroneously encoded. Corrected if possible.
TG Temperature gradient error:insulation penetration, spikes, high frequency noise, wire break, modulo 10 spikes. The temperature profile exhibits erroneous temperature gradients when compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region. (The reasons could be spiking, interference,XBT wire break, modulo 10 problem, XBT wire insulation penetration, etc)
TI Temperature inversion error: wire stretch. The temperature profile exhibits erroneous temperature inversions when compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region. (The reasons could be XBT wire stretch, sensor drift, encoding error, etc).
TO Temperature/depth offset. The temperature profile exhibits erroneous temperature/depth offsets compared to neighbouring profiles and/or climatology and/or known characteristics of the region. The offsets can occur.at depth, or over sections of the profile, or over the complete profile (The reason could be instrument drift/sensor failure, encoding error, XBT fall rate error, XBT start-of-descent timing error, etc)
TP Test Probe, and devices are frequently used for testing or calibrating XBT systems. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
TS Thermocline Spike
UP Station passed through the update program
UR Under resolved. Temperature data is encoded at standard depths/levels and can"t be used to reconstitute a profile accurately.
WB Wire Break. The XBT wire breaks, a short circuit causes the temperature readings to go off scale either to the low (wire breaks from the spool in the launcher) or to the high (wire breaks from the descending probe's spool) temperature end of the scale. The main cause of wire breaks can be fouling or if the terminal depth of the probe is reached. Often a wire stretch will precede a wire break. CSIRO Code (CSCB)
WS Wire Stretch. A true wire stretch causes an abnormal increase of temperature with depth (usually > 0.2DegC observed over a large range of depths). A wire stretch because of an increase in tension in the wire (due to poor unreeling) can result in a similar bulge to the high temperature side of an XBT profile. These malfunctions can look very similar to temperature inversions, and must be confirmed by a check between neighbouring profiles (usually repeat drops), or have been observed in an area where inversions are known to occur, and flagged as real. Unconfirmed features are flagged according to the degree of confidence. If the anomaly is suspected to be erroneous it should be flagged as a wire stretch. See the CSIRO Quality Control Cookbook for further clarification. CSIRO Code (CSCB)