-Get the CoRTAD data files via HTTP here-
-Get the CoRTAD data files via FTP here-
-Get the CoRTAD data files via OPeNDAP here-
-Get the CoRTAD data files via THREDDS here-
Our current opendap server is not yet configured for netCDF 4.
CoRTAD is available via opendap through the THREDDS server above.
About the Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database:
The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for coral reef ecosystem applications but relevant to other ecosystems as well. The CoRTAD Version 5 contains global, approximately 4 km resolution SST data on a weekly time scale from 1982 through 2012. The purpose of the CoRTAD is to provide sea surface temperature data and related thermal stress parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy, and fine spatial resolution. The CoRTAD is intended primarily for climate and ecosystem related applications and studies and was designed specifically to address questions concerning the relationship between coral disease and bleaching and temperature stress.
Version 5, 1982-01-02 - 2012-12-28, Global 4320x8640x1617 netCDF-4.1.2 (doi:10.7289/V5CZ3545)
Version 4, 1981-10-31 - 2010-12-31, Global 4320x8640, Tile 540x540, NetCDF-4 Classic (doi:10.7289/V59G5JR3)
Version 3, 1982-01-01 - 2009-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5
Version 2, 1982-01-01 - 2008-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5
Version 1, 1985-01-01 - 2005-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF4
NODC Accession Numbers: v5 126774; v4 0087989; v3 0068999; v2 0054501; v1 0044419
Like its previous version (CoRTAD 4), CoRTAD 5 is derived from Pathfinder 5.2 Sea Surface Temperatue as well, while CoRTAD 3 utilized Pathfinder 5.1 and 5.0. CoRTAD 5 has 22 extra months of data and was developed using 1982-2012 data from the Pathfinder Version 5.2 collection produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) (http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov). These SST data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and are processed to a resolution of approximately 4.6 km at the equator. These data have the highest resolution covering the longest time period of any satellite-based ocean temperature dataset. Daytime and nighttime data were averaged weekly using data with a quality flag of 4 or better. Previous versions of CoRTAD (versions 1-3) also incorporated pixels up to 5 degrees warmer than a course resolution reference SST based on the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (Weekly, 1-degree OISST version 2.0). Since Pathfinder Version 5.2 already uses a finer resolution reference field (25 km Daily OISST) this additional step was not incorporated here in CoRTAD Version 5, or in the previous CoRTAD Version 4. These processes resulted in a weekly SST dataset that is roughly 80% gap free.
Please note in both CoRTAD Versions 4 and 5, a gap exists in the Pathfinder 5.2 dataset from 1994 day 275 to 1995 day 17 since Level 1B GAC data from NOAA-9 is not available from the NOAA archives. For these 3.5 months, SST has been interpolated from Pathfinder 5.0 and 0.17K is subtracted to transform the data to the skin temperature basis of Pathfinder 5.2. In CoRTAD Version 5, the data are not stored in separate geographic tiles like in Version 4 and earlier. Instead, each data file contains the entire global coverage for a related grouping of CoRTAD parameters.
In addition to SST, the CoRTAD contains SST anomaly (SSTA, weekly SST minus weekly climatological SST), thermal stress anomaly (TSA, weekly SST minus the maximum weekly climatological SST), SSTA Degree Heating Week (SSTA_DHW, sum of previous 12 weeks when SSTA >= 1 degree C), SSTA Frequency (number of times over the previous 52 weeks that SSTA >= 1 degree C), TSA DHW (TSA_DHW, also known as Degree Heating Week, sum of previous 12 weeks when TSA >= 1 degree C), and TSA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that TSA >=1 degree C). The CoRTAD was created at the NOAA NCEI with support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program.
The CoRTAD is described in detail in:
Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J.F. Bruno (2010), New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x.
A few selected graphics showing the mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures from the CoRTAD are shown below to give a small glimpse into the database. Click on the graphic for an expanded view, or follow the link below the graphic to display the full resolution TIFF version. The CoRTAD is a large and extensive collection of data. At the end of this page, a listing of the files making up the CoRTAD along with their sizes is provided. Version 1 is in HDF4-SDS format while Versions 2 and 3 are in HDF-5 and for Version 4 and 5 the data is in NetCDF format. See the Satellite data formats page for more information.
Currently, a major gap exists from 1994275 to 1995017 in Pathfinder 5.2. In addition it has been determined that 1994256 to 1994274 Pathfinder 5.2 have few observations. This is because complete Level 0 or Level 1 GAC data from NOAA-9 have not yet been found. CoRTAD version 5 uses Pathfinder 5.0 sst data from 1994256 through 1995017. 0.17K is subtracted from the 5.0 pathfinder as 5.2 represents skin temperature as opposed to bulk temperature.
For more information, please
contact the NCEI satellite oceanography team.
Related Publications which have used the CoRTAD:
Ban, S.S., N.A.J. Graham, and S.R. Connolly (2011). Relationships between
temperature, bleaching and white syndrome on the Great Barrier Reef, Coral
Reefs, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1-12.(DOI: 10.1007/s00338-012-0944-6)
Barneche, D.R., M. Kulbicki, S.R. Floeter, A.M. Friedlander, J. Maina,
and A.P. Allen (2014). Scaling metabolism from individuals to reef-fish
communities at broad spatial scales, Ecology Letters, vol. 17, no. 9,
pp. 1067–1076.(DOI: 10.1111/ele.12309)
Bruno, J.F., E.R. Selig, K.S. Casey, C.A. Page, B.L. Willis, C.D. Harvell,
H. Sweatman, and Amy Melendy (2007). Thermal stress and coral cover as
drivers of coral disease outbreaks, Public Library of Science Biology, Vol.
5, no. 6, e124.(DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050124)
Castruccio, F.S., E.N. Curchitser, and J.A. Kleypas (2013), A model for
quantifying oceanic transport and mesoscale variability in the Coral
Triangle of the Indonesian/Philippines Archipelago, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans,
118, 6123–6144.(DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009196)
Halpern, Benjamin S., M. Frazier, J. Potapenko, Kenneth S. Casey, K. Koenig,
C. Longo, J.S. Lowndes, R.C. Rockwood, E.R. Selig, K.A. Selkoe, and S. Walbridge
(2015). Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's
ocean, Nature Communications, vol. 6, no. 7615, pp. 1-7.(DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8615)
Halpern Benjamin S., C.V. Kappel, K.A. Selkoe, F. Micheli, C.M. Ebert et al.
(2009). Mapping cumulative human impacts to California Current marine
ecosystems. Conservation Letters, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 138-148.(DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00058.x)
Halpern, Benjamin S., Shaun Walbridge, Kimberly A. Selkoe, Carrie V. Kappel,
Fiorenza Micheli, Caterina D'Agrosa, John F. Bruno, Kenneth S. Casey,
Colin Ebert, Helen E. Fox, Rod Fujita, Dennis Heinemann, Hunter S. Lenihan,
Elizabeth M.P. Madin, Matthew T. Perry, Elizabeth R. Selig, Mark Spalding,
Robert Steneck, Reg Watson (2008). A global map of human impact on marine
ecosystems. Science, vol. 319, no. 5865, pp. 948-952.(DOI: 10.1126/science.1149345)
Hoff, M. (2007). What's Behind the Spread of White Syndrome in Great Barrier Reef Corals? PLoS Biol 5(6): e164 (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050164).
Kleypas, J.A., F.S. Castruccio, E.N. Curchitser, and E. Mcleod (2015), The
impact of ENSO on coral heat stress in the western equatorial Pacific. Global
Change Biology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 2525–2539.(DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12881)
Kristiansen, T., H. Wehde, J. Albretsen, and M.D. Skogen, (2014). QUALITY
INFORMATION DOCUMENT For Northwest Shelf Physical and biological Reanalysis
Products NORTHWESTSHELF_REANALYSIS_PHYS_004_010 NORTHWESTSHELF _REANALYSIS_BIO_004_012.
Maina, J, TR McClanahan, V Venus, M Ateweberhan, and J Madin (2011). Global
Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for
Local Management. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23064.(DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023064)
McLeod, Elizabeth, Russell Moffitt, Axel Timmermann, Rodney Salm,
Laurie Menviel, Michael J. Palmer, Elizabeth R. Selig, Kenneth S. Casey,
and John F. Bruno, (2010) 'Warming Seas in the Coral Triangle: Coral Reef
Vulnerability and Management Implications', Coastal Management,
38: 5, 518-539, First published on: 26 August 2010 (iFirst),
URL: (DOI: 10.1080/08920753.2010.509466.
Pineda, J., V. Starczak, A. Tarrant, J. Blythe, K. Davis, T. Farrar, M.
Berumen and José C. B. da Silva (2013). Two spatial scales in a bleaching
event: Corals from the mildest and the most extreme thermal environments
escape mortality, Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1531-1545.
Pirhalla D.E., V. Ransibrahmanakul, R. Clark, A. Desch, T. Wynne, and M. Edwards. 2009. An Oceanographic Characterization of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and Pacific Northwest: Interpretive Summary of Ocean Climate and Regional Processes Through Satellite Remote Sensing. Prepared by NCCOS's Coastal Oceanographic Assessments, Status and Trends Division in cooperation with the National Marine Sanctuary Program. Silver Spring, MD. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 90. 53 pp.
Selig, E.R., C.D. Harvell, J.F. Bruno, B.L. Willis, C.A. Page, K.S. Casey and H.
Sweatman (2006). Analyzing the relationship between ocean temperature
anomalies and coral disease outbreaks at broad spatial scales. In; J.T.
Phinney, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong (eds.).
Coral reefs and climate change: science and management. American
Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, Pages 111-128.
Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J.F. Bruno (2010). New insights into global
patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health
and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography,
Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey and J.F. Bruno (2012). Temperature-driven coral
decline: the role of marine protected areas Global Change Biology, vol. 18, no. 5,
pp. 1561–1570.(DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02658.x)
Selkoe, K.A., B.S. Halpern, C.M. Ebert, E.C. Franklin, E.R. Selig, K.S.
Casey, J. Bruno, and R.J. Toonen (2009). A map of human impacts to a
"pristine" coral reef ecosystem, the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National
Monument. Coral Reefs. (DOI: 10.1007/s00338-009-0490-z)
Stat, M. and R.D. Gates (2011). Clade D Symbiodinium in Scleractinian
Corals: A “Nugget” of Hope, a Selfish Opportunist, an Ominous Sign, or
All of the Above?, Journal of Marine Biology, vol. 2011, Article ID
730715, 9 pages.(DOI: 10.1155/2011/730715)
Zavala-Garay, J., J. Theiss, M. Moulton, C. Walsh, R. van Woesik, C.G.
Mayorga-Adame, M. Garcíia-Reyes, D.S. Mukaka, K. Whilden, and Y.W.
Shaghude (2015). On the dynamics of the Zanzibar Channel, J. Geophys. Res.
Oceans. Accepted Author Manuscript.(DOI: 10.1002/2015JC010879)
Zuo, X., F. Su, W. Wu, Z. Chen and W. Shi (2015). Spatial and temporal
variability of thermal stress to China's coral reefs in South China Sea,
vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 159-173. (DOI: 10.1007/s11769-015-0741-6)
The following publications used the AVHRR Pathfinder data set, from which CoRTAD is derived:
NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) 2005. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: A Review of Boundary Expansion Concepts for NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary Program. Prepared by NCCOS's Biogeography Team in cooperation with the National Marine Sanctuary Program. Silver Spring, MD. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 21. 215 pp.
NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) 2007. A Biogeographic Assessment off North/Central California: In Support of the National Marine Sanctuaries of Cordell Bank, Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay. Phase II - Environmental Setting and Update to Marine Birds and Mammals. Prepared by NCCOS's Biogeography Branch, R.G. Ford Consulting Co. and Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, in cooperation with the National Marine Sanctuary Program. Silver Spring, MD. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 40. 302 pp.