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XBT Quality Tests References Table (more info ...)
 
Ref# Author(s) Year
Published
Title Publication Depth Equation Temperature Bias XBT Type Ship Ocean Area Date of Experiment Number of XBTs/CTDs Comment Data at USNODC
1 Steinhart J. S.;
S. H. Hart
1968 Calibration curves for thermistors Deep-Sea Research, 15, 497-503               A very accurate thermistor calibration curve is outlined X
2 Denner W. W. et al. 1971 A modification of the expendable bathythermograph for thermal microstructure studies Deep-Sea Research, 18, 375-378               By clipping the XBTs wire reel; only the on deck spool can unwind; slowing descent rate to 2 m/s. Implemented in the Arctic No
3 Frank Martin Hunt 1971 An examination of microthermal structure statistics as calculated from expendable bathythermograph records Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School         North Pacific Ocean   129 The motive of this study was to gather information that can be gathered from XBT records and then to give some prediction of the influence on sonar transmissions and receptions. No
4 Flierl G. 1974 XBT-CTD intercomparison In Instrument description and intercomparison report of "The MODE-I Intercomparison Group", 173 pp.               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only  
5 Welser Edward V. 1974 Comparison of XBT and STUP profiles and their use in determining acoustic intensity - loss Marine Technology Society Journal, 8, 38-41     T7   Near 24°N; 82°W   44 XBT/
9 Bissette Berman 9006A
XBTs are adequate for sound velocity calculations in the open ocean No
6 Stegen Gilbert R.;
Donald P. Delisi and
Rudy C. Von Colln
1975 A portable; digital recording; expendable bathythermograph (XBT) system Deep-Sea Research, 22, 447-453     T10   Hudson Canyon; New York Bight Apr. 1974 XBT drops only In analog system; the instrument error is divided between recorder and probe. Digital system reduces the recorder error. No
7 Joyce T., J. Dean
M. McCartney, R. Millard
D. Moller, A. Voorhis
C. Dahm, D. Georgi
G. Kullenberg,J. Toole, W. Zenk
1976 Observations of the Antarctic Polar Front During FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report Technical Report,WHOI-76-74, 150 pp.     T4, T7 R/V Thompson South of Drake Passage Mar. - Apr. 1976 15 XBT/CTD comparison noted/ no results 31008540
8 Mantyla A. 1976 Personal communication (found in Heinmiller et al.; 1983)       T4   10 to 32°N; 120 to 150°E May-Jun. 1976 12 Nansen casts Isotherm depth difference linearly increased to -16 m at 450 m (XBT-Nansen cast) 2 collocated Nansen/XBT stations taken from Ryofo Maru. Unknown if these are part of the referenced data
49001847
9 Wood Wayne 1976 Practical accuracy of Sippican T-7 XBTs Pacific Marine Science Report, 14 pp.   < +0.15
(for 80-90% of probes)
T7 Endeavour Northeast Pacific Aug. 1975 64 XBT/STD Also found problems due to digitization; startup transients No
10 Anonymous 1977 Surface ship type T-4 expendable bathythermograph (SXBT) October 1977 test plan for Navy stock XBTs Naval Underwater Systems Center, 39 pp.     T4;T7   Worldwide 1977   Plan for extensive tests of T4 and T7 probes; boxes of XBTs from all years 1968-1975 No
11 Flierl Glenn R. and
Allan R. Robinson
1977 XBT measurement of thermal gradients in the MODE eddy Journal of Physical Oceanography, 7, 300-302     T7   Around 28°N; 70°W   13 XBT/15 CTD Found a depth offset of isotherms. Problem is not simply a vertical offset Possibly one of the following cruises:
31002754; 31002545; 31002160; 31002647; 31002648
12 McDowell Scott 1977 A note on XBT accuracy POLYMODE News, 29     T7 Oceanus Near 25°N; 70°W Sep.-Oct. 1976 47 XBT/ 29 STD Found an isotherm depth offset XBT vs CTD No
13 Anonymous 1978 Preliminary results of surface ship type T-4 expendable bathythermograph sea testing conducted during Oct 1977 Naval Underwater Systems Center     T4 USS Blakely Between Charleston and Bermuda Oct. 22-23 1977 1514 XBT Tactical error statistics are given. Comparison between new T4/T7s and older XBTs from storage. No overall bias is found between new/old (as old as 1969). 31052624
(only 206 of the total)
14 McDowell Scott 1978 A cautionary note on T-5 XBTs POLYMODE News, 58               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only  
15 Federov K. N.
A. I. Ginsburg and
A. G. Zatsepin
1978 Systematic differences in isotherm depths derived from XBT and CTD data POLYMODE News, 50     T7 Akademik Kurchatov Western North Atlantic (POLYMODE region) Aug. 1977   XBT dropped while ship moving; nearby CTD station. AIST CTD used. Depth offset of isotherms found from a mean of about -20 meters (XBT-CTD) for 12°C to +10 at 19°C 90052180
16 Tabata S. 1978 On the accuracy of sea-surface temperatures and salinities observed in the northeast Pacific Ocean Atmosphere-Ocean, 16, 237-247   +0.27 (at surface) T7   Ocean Weather Station P Aug. 1975   Used data from Woods (1976)  
17 Georgi D.;
J. Dean;
J. Chase
1979 XBT probe-to-probe thermistor temperature variability POLYMODE News, 71, 5-9               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only  
18 Georgi D.
J. Dean;
J. Chase
1980 Temperature calibration of expendable bathythermographs Ocean Engineering, 7, 491-499               Thermistors agree with bath temperature within ±0.014°C with mean standard deviation of 0.024 X
19 Gent A. E. 1982 An evaluation of the airborne expendable bathythermograph. (AXBT; SSQ-36 BTS) * Naval Oceanographic Office Technical Report, TR-277, 177 pp     Hermes; Magnavox; Sippican AXBT     Mar. 1980 - Jan. 1981   Extensive laboratory tests of Navy AXBTs. Sippican AXBT within ±0.5°C as specified. Hermes and Magnavox fell outside that accuracy range. Sippican found to be self-heating. This self-heating was not quantified X
20 Green A. W.;
K. D. Saunders
1982 Theoretical and empirical fall rates of XCPs and XBTs Oceans 81, 382-386     XCP         no direct comparison CTD/XBT. Recommendations made based on CTD/XCP (Expendable Current Profilers) comparsions X
21 Seaver G. A.
S. Kuleshov
1982 Experimental and analytical error of the expendable bathythermograph Journal of Physical Oceanography, 12, 592-600   +0.025 (thermistor bias) T5;T7 T7: Mikhail Lomonosov T7: 400 km area centered at 29°N; 70°W T7: Nov.-Dec. 1977 T7: 103 pairs Found depth error was dominant; modeled temperature dependent drop rate changes. Found difference between analog and digital recorders was significant T7: 90052262
22 Clancy R.M. 1983 The effect of observational error correlations on objective analysis of ocean thermal structure Deep-Sea Research, 30; 985-1002         Worldwide     For analysis of XBT data on a grid too coarse to resolve mesoscale eddies; the error is dominated by aliasing rather than instrumental error X
23 Heinmiller Robert H.;
Curtis C. Ebbesmeyer;
Bruce A. Taft;
Donald B. Olson and
Oleg P. Nikitin
1983 Systematic errors in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) profiles Deep-Sea Research, 30, 1185-1197 T7: z= 0.995z0 - 1.112.0
for 0 ≤ z ≤ 325m;
z= 1.044z0 - 17.137
for 326 ≤ z ≤ 750 m;
z0 is depth using original equation
T4: +0.19;
T7: +0.13
T4; T7   T4: Tropical Central Pacific
T7: Sargasso Sea
T4: Feb. 1979 - Apr. 1980
T7: Dec. 1976 - Jul. 1978
  No depth equation was given for T4 due to wide scatter of data T4: 32008668; 32054493; 32054494; 32054494; 32008809; 32008810; 32009350
T7: 31014068; 90052559
24 Bane John M. and
Meredith H. Sessions
1984 A field performance test of the Sippican deep aircraft-deployed expendable bathythermograph Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 3615-3621 1.516t + 1.553 x 10-5t2   Sippican AXBT Researcher 25°N; 71°W   37 AXBT/ 5 CTD Calculated depth equation not significantly different from original. Also calculated a better frequency to temperature formula:
T= -66.8857 + 7.0273 x 10-2F - 2.1807 x 10-5F2 + 3.6311 x 10-9F3
No
25 Green A. W. 1984 Bulk dynamics of the expendable bathythermograph (XBT) Deep-Sea Research, 31, 415-426 6.45t - 1.31 x 10-3t2             Drag and buoyancy changes are also discussed and modifications to drop rate are discussed based on these X
26 Wannamaker B., R. Rossi,
P. Nesfield, P. Saia
1985 A microcomputer- controlled digital acquisition and analysis system for the Expendable Bathythermograph SACLANT ASW research centre memorandum, SACLANTCEN SM-183               The SACLANTCEN developed flexible XBT digital data acquisition and analysis system has been described X
27 Emery W. J.
W. Lee; W. Zenk and
J. Meincke
1986 A low-cost digital XBT system and its applications to the real-time computation of dynamic height Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 3, 75-83   +0.08 T7 Poseidon III Northeast Atlantic; West of Rockall Channel July; 1984 41 XBT/ 42 CTD   No
28 Niiler Peter 1986 Pacific Thermocline Circulation Study Scripps Reference, 86-27, 108 pp.               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only Abstract notes 3 CTD/XBT simultaneous drops X
29 Boyd Janice Dinegar 1987 Improved depth and temperature conversion equations for Sippican AXBTs Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 4, 545-552 Deep AXBT: 1.6325t - 2.1410-4t2
Shallow AXBT: 1.5573t - 3.01 x 10-4t2
  Deep AXBT;
Shallow AXBT
USN Bartlett Off the Northeast coast of South America Oct. 1985 5 Shallow;
7 Deep AXBT/ CTDs
Also calculated a new
temperature (T) - resistance (F) equation:
T= -38.6045 + 2.71075 x 10-2F
No
30 Roemmich Dean and
Bruce Cornuelle
1987 Digitization and calibration of the expendable bathythermograph Deep-Sea Research, 34, 299-307               Found mean calibration errors of -0.008 with a standard deviation of 0.07 with some large outliers X
31 Hanawa Kimio and
Hiroyoki Yoritaka
1987 Detection of systematic errors in XBT data and their correction. Journal of the Oceanographic Society of Japan, 43, 68-76 6.715t - 2.449 x 10-3t2 +0.18; -0.05
(two different XBT batches)
in the mixed layer
TSK T7 Hakuho Maru Area centered at 29°N; 135°E Dec. 1985 15 XBT/CTD   No
32 Bailey R. J.;
H. E. Phillips;
G. Meyers
1989 Relevance to TOGA of systematic XBT errors Proceedings of the Western Pacific International Meeting and Workshop on TOGA COARE; compiled by Joel Picaut; Roger Lukas; Thierry Delcroix, 775-785     DB Franklin West of Australia 1987 43 XBT/23 CTD SEAS II XBT System had startup transients and bowing; MK-9 had smaller startup transient; no bowing. All XBTs had a depth error 09002640; 09002646
33 Henin C. 1989 Experimental error of the expendable bathythermograph in the Western Tropical Pacific Presented at the first session of the TOGA XBT ad hoc Panel of Experts; Noumea; New Caledonia; June 1989, 9 pp.               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only  
34 Rual Pierre 1989 For a Better XBT bathy-message: Onboard quality control; plus new data reduction method Proceedings of the Western Pacific International Meeting and Workshop on TOGA COARE; compiled by Joel Picaut; Roger Lukas; Thierry Delcroix, 823-832               Use Hanning filter and broken stick method when reducing data from GTS transmission X
35 Szabados M. and
D. Wright
1989 Field evaluation of real-time XBT systems Proceedings of the Western Pacific International Meeting and Workshop on TOGA COARE; compiled by Joel Picaut; Roger Lukas; Thierry Delcroix, 811-821 6.796t - 2.38 x 10-3t2   T4;T6;T7 Whiting Southwest North Atlantic Jul. 1988 66 XBT/33 CTD;
one XBT released on decent;
one on ascent
Also found a system bias among recorder types 31009881
36 Wright D.;
and M. Szabados
1989 Field evaluation of real-time XBT systems Oceans 89, 5, 1621-1626 6.796t - 2.38 x 10-3t2   T4;T6;T7 Whiting Southwest North Atlantic Jul. 1988 66 XBT/33 CTD;
one XBT released on decent;
one on ascent
Also found a system bias among recorder types 31009881
37 Yoshida Jiro;
Toru Suzuki;
Hideo Sudo and
Masaji Matsuyama
1989 Correction of XBT depth error. Journal of the Tokyo University of Fisheries, 76, 55-63 6.674t - 3.286 x 10-3t2
(0-50 meters depth)
  TSK T7 Shinyo Maru Japan Sea 25-30 Jul. 1988 22 XBT/CTD   No
38 Anonymous 1990 Comprehensive at-sea test of shiplaunched expendable bathythermograph probes Naval Underwater Systems Center; Code 432, 22 pp.     T4;T7   Worldwide 1990   Plan for extensive tests of T4 and T7 probes worldwide No
39 Anonymous 1990 RRS Challenger Cruise 74/1990 6 - 19 December, 1990 * Scottish Marine Biological Association Dunstaffnage Marine Research Laboratory Cruise Report 2     T7, Sparton T7 RRS Challenger Troon to Oban (Northwest Scotland) Dec. 6-19 1990 28 Sippican/Spartion/? CTD Due to weather, drops were on shallow shelf No
40 Anonymous 1990 TOGA XBT ad hoc panel of experts report of the second session International TOGA Project Office, ITPO-No. 4               Possible differences between T7 depth equations from different experiments may be due to differences in wire diameter and thickness of enamel coating on wires. Bowing problem only with BathySystems 810 XBT Recorder; not Sippican MK-9 X
41 Gould W. J.;
R. Bailey and
M. Szabados
1990 Errors in XBT probes WOCE Newsletter, 10, 10-11               Gould: difference between actual depth and XBT depth is +37.4± 6.6 m
Bailey: bowing problem in Bathy System SA-810 XBT controller under SEAS II configuration displays increases in isothermal layer of 0.7 due to bowing.
Szabados: increasing current in Bathy System eliminates the problem
Gould: 74008197
Bailey: 09002640; 09002646
42 Singer James J. 1990 On the error observed in electronically digitized T-7 XBT data Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 7, 603-611 6.472t - 2.16 x 10-3t2   T7 1885: R/V Pelican
1986: Altair
1985: Gulf of Mexico ring at 24°N; 92°W;
1986: ring centered at 25°N; 96°W
Oct. 1985;
Jan. 1986
1985: 14;
1986: 15 XBT/CTD
  32003072; 57000043
43 Sy A. and
J. Ulrich
1990 North Atlantic ship-of-opportunity XBT programme - 1989 data report Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte aus dem Deutschen Hydrographischen Institut, 1990-2, 89 pp.               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only  
44 Watts R., K. Mohammed,
and E. Fields
1990 XBT Systematic Depth Error and Correction The Synoptician, Vol. 1, N. 2, 7-June       R/V Oceanus   Aug. - Sep. 1989 36 XBT/CTD Correction calculation
(from Sippican original equation):
Ztrue = (1.045 ± 0.004)*Zxbt + 0.0
31025665
45 Augstein Ernst
Nikolai Bagrainstev
Hans Werner Schenke
1991 The Expedition ANTARKTIS VIII/1-2,
1989 with the Winter Weddell Gyre Study of the Research Vessels "Polarstern" and "Akademic Fedorov"
*
Ber. Polarforsch, 84 (1991), 34 pp.     T5 R/V Polarstern Transit, Germany - Brazil Aug. 1989     XBT yes/ CTD no
06154320
46 Hanawa Kimio and
Yasushi Yoshikawa
1991 Reexamination of the depth error in XBT data Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 8, 422-429
T7: 6.711t - 2.454 x 10-3t2
A 6.741t - 2.528 x 10-3t2
B 6.652t - 2.030 x 10-3t2
C 6.941t - 4.133 x 10-3t2
D 6.562t - 1.476 x 10-3t2
T6: 6.533t - 1.378 x 10-3t2
  T6 (D);
T7 (A;B;C;D)
Hakuho Maru (A; B);
Tansei Maru (C;D)
Near Japan A. Dec. 1985;
B. Feb. 1987;
C. Sep. 1987;
D. Jun. 1989
A 12; B 7; C 8; D 10
T7; 9
T6. all XBT/CTD pairs
  No
47 Gould W. J. 1991 RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 50 IOMSL Cruise Report, 221, 41 pp.     Plessey T7 RRS Charles Darwin Iceland Basin Jun. 28 - Jul. 22 1990 48 XBT Comparison of bottom depth vs. XBT depth showed XBT depths were shallower by 37.4± 6.6m. Linear fit for depth errors from surfact to 700 meters posited. 74008197
48 Meincke Jens 1991 Cruise Narrative: A01E *       DB; T5; Sparton T7; Sparton DB R/V Meteor Eastern North Atlantic Sep. 2-26 1991 24 DB. 12 Sparton DB; 12 Sparton T7; 13 T5   XBT no/
CTD yes 06009468
49 Prater Mark D. 1991 A Method for depth and temperature correction of expendable probes Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 8, 888-894       Oceanus Gulf of Cadiz Sep. 1988 210 XBT/ 148 CTD The XBTs (probably T5s) were dropped only to compare with XSV (Sound Velocity) probes; and were not dropped concurrently with CTDs No
50 Sy A. 1991 XBT measurements In WHP Operations and Methods. WHP Office Report, WHPO 91-1; WOCE Report 68/91, 19pp               Do not have a copy of this publication. Known from references only  
51 Wright Darren M. 1991 Field evaluation of the XBT bowing phenomenon Ocean Observations Division Data Report, 91-2, 18pp       Malcolm Baldridge Between Miami and Norfolk Jun. 3-5 1991 12 XBT for each recorder type/ 1 CTD Bowing in BATHY Systems 810 can be reduced/eliminated by increasing current No
52 Hallock Zahariah R. and
William J. Teague
1992 The fall rate of the T-7 XBT Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 9, 470-483 6.798t - 2.38 x 10-3t2 - 4.01
(below 10 meters depth)
  T7 USN Bartlett Near 16°N; 56°W May 1990 36 sets of 4 simultaneous XBTs; 5 CTDs   31025270
53 Hanawa K. and
T. Yasuda
1992 New detecton method for XBT depth error and relationship between depth error and coefficients in the depth-time equation Journal of Oceanography, 48, 221-230 6.655t - 1.844 x 10-3t2   TSK T7 R/V Hakuho Maru Along shuttle line from Tokyo to Ogasawara Feb. 1991 4 XBT/CTD pairs   No
54 Owens Nicholas J. P. et. all 1992 Cruise Narrative: P19A *         James Clark Ross West of Antarctic Peninsula; along 88°W Nov. 1 - Dec. 8 1992 7 XBT/CTD   XBT no/
CTD yes 74009638
55 Boyd Janice D. 1993 The temperature and depth accuracy of Sippican T-5 XBTs. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 10, 128-139 6.705t - 1.619 x 10-3t2 +0.08 T5   Sargasso Sea Summer 1991 36 XBT/25 CTD   No
56 Boyd Janice D. and
Robert S. Linzell
1993 Evaluation of the Sparton tight-tolerance AXBT Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 10, 892-899 1.620t - 2.238 x 10-4t2 - 1.291 x 10-7t3 +0.11 Sparton Tight Tolerance AXBT   Sargasso Sea Summer 1991 46 AXBT/CTD Also calculated a new
temperature (T) - resistance (F) equation:
T= -37.839 + 2.5304 x 10-2F + 6.6307 x 10-7F2
No
57 Budeus G. and
G. Krause
1993 On-cruise calibration of XBT probes Deep-Sea Research, 40, 1359-1363   +0.07 DB Polarstern Between Spitzenberg and Greenland Summer 1990 More than 100 XBT (3% failure) Comparison to calibration bath XBT temperature was on average 0.07° higher. No
58 Narayanan S. and
G. R. Lilly
1993 On the accuracy of XBT temperature profiles Deep-Sea Research, 40, 2105-2113     T6; T10 Shamook; Dawson Trinity Bay;
Newfoundland;
Continental shelf;
Newfoundland
Jan. 1991
Jul. 1991
22 XBT; 18 XBT Found a depth offset unrelated to drop rate. Speculated that it may be due to system not starting right when probe hits the water Shamook: XBT yes;
CTD No;
18111661
Dawson: No
59 Spindler Michael;
Gerhard Dieckmann and
David Thomas
1993 The Expedition ANTARKTIS X/3 of RV Polarstern in 1992 * Ber. Polarforsch., 121, 9-Jun       Polarstern Cape Town to Antarctica Mar. 27 - May 19 1992   Found thermal lag between CTD and Bio-Rossette due to large temperature contrast between instrument and water No
60 Hanawa K.;
P. Rual;
R. Bailey;
A. Sy;
M. Szabados
1994 Calculation of new depth equations for expendable bathythermographs using a temperature-error-free method (Application to Sippican/TSK T7; T6; and T4 XBTs) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Technical Series, 42
6.691t - 2.25 x 10-3t2
nwp1:6.669t - 2.23 x 10-3t2
nwp2:6.652t - 2.01 x 10-3t2
wep4:6.662t - 2.01 x 10-3t2
swtp5:6.694t - 2.49 x 10-3t2
6:6.747 - 2.00 x 10-3t2
sei3:6.666t - 2.24 x 10-3t2
7:6.514t - 0.61 x 10-3t2
nwta8:6.822t - 2.93 x 10-3t2
nea9:6.561t - 1.79 x 10-3t2
T7 Sippican:6.698t - 2.35 x 10-3t2
T4/T6 Sippican:6.697t - 2.21 x 10-3t2
T7 TSK:6.707t - 2.42t x 10-3t2
T6 TSK:6.566t - 1.64 x 10-3t2
T4/T6 Global:6.683t - 2.15 x 10-3t2
T7 Global:6.701t - 2.38 x 10-3t2
 
nwp1:TSK T6;T7
nwtp2:TSK T7
wep4:T4;T7
swtp5:T4;T6;T7
6:T7
sei3:T7
7:T4
nwta8:T4;T6;T7
nea9:T7
 
nwp1:Northwest Pacific
nwp2:Northwest Tropical Pacific
wep4:Western Equatorial Pacific
swtp5:Southwest Tropical Pacific
6:Tasman Sea
sei3:Southeast Indian
7:Bahamas
nwta8:Northwest Tropical Atlantic
nea9:Northeast Atlantic
nwp1:1985-1991
nwtp2:1987
wep4:1989-92
swtp5:1989-92
6:1989
sei3:1987
7:1992
nwta8:1988-91
nea9:1991
nwp1:54
nwtp2:9
wep4:101
swtp5:76
6:12
sei3:21
7:21
nwta8:66
nea9:12
 
nwp1:No;
nwtp2:No;
7:No;
nea9:No;
nwta8:31009881;
sei3:09002640; 09002646;
6:09002640;
wep4; swtp5: 35008777; 35008774
61 Ridgway K. R. 1994 An application of a new depth correction formula to archived XBT data Deep-Sea Research, 42, 1513-1519         Tasman Sea off of Eastern Australia     Hanawa depth equation removes bias in historical data for this area for the 200-700 m portion of water column X
62 Narayanan Savi 1995 Results from a further evaluation of XBT systems Deep-Sea Research, 41, 1043-1044               random startup delay of 0.2-0.3s occurred using V3.x firmware/V4.x acquisition software/V3.0 GPIBDVR.COM communication software. With newer V5.2 GPIDDVR.COM communication software the startup delay was much smaller; nearly eliminating depth errors X
63 Hanawa; K.;
P. Rual;
R. Bailey;
A. Sy and
M. Szabados
1995 A new depth-time equation for Sippican or TSK T-7; T-6; and T-4 expendable bathythermographs (XBT) Deep-Sea Research, 42, 1423-1451
6.691t - 2.25 x 10-3t2
nwp1:6.669t - 2.23 x 10-3t2
nwp2:6.652t - 2.01 x 10-3t2
wep4:6.662t - 2.01 x 10-3t2
swtp5:6.694t - 2.49 x 10-3t2
6:6.747 - 2.00 x 10-3t2
sei3:6.666t - 2.24 x 10-3t2
7:6.514t - 0.61 x 10-3t2
nwta8:6.822t - 2.93 x 10-3t2
nea9:6.561t - 1.79 x 10-3t2
T7 Sippican:6.698t - 2.35 x 10-3t2
T4/T6 Sippican:6.697t - 2.21 x 10-3t2
T7 TSK:6.707t - 2.42t x 10-3t2
T6 TSK:6.566t - 1.64 x 10-3t2
T4/T6 Global:6.683t - 2.15 x 10-3t2
T7 Global:6.701t - 2.38 x 10-3t2
 
nwp1:TSK T6;T7
nwtp2:TSK T7
wep4:T4;T7
swtp5:T4;T6;T7
6:T7
sei3:T7
7:T4
nwta8:T4;T6;T7
nea9:T7
 
nwp1:Northwest Pacific
nwp2:Northwest Tropical Pacific
wep4:Western Equatorial Pacific
swtp5:Southwest Tropical Pacific
6:Tasman Sea
sei3:Southeast Indian
7:Bahamas
nwta8:Northwest Tropical Atlantic
nea9:Northeast Atlantic
nwp1:1985-1991
nwtp2:1987
wep4:1989-92
swtp5:1989-92
6:1989
sei3:1987
7:1992
nwta8:1988-91
nea9:1991
   
nwp1:No;
nwtp2:No;
7:No;
nea9:No;
nwta8:31009881;
sei3:09002640; 09002646;
6:09002640;
wep4; swtp5: 35008777; 35008774
64 Rual P;
A. Dessier and J. P.
Rebert
1995 New depth equation for old Sparton XBT-7 expendable bathythermographs International WOCE Newsletter, 19, 33-34 6.472t - 1.96 x 10-3t2   Old Sparton T7   Tropical Atlantic Early 1993
(WOCE line A7)
27 XBT/CTD   35009437
65 Rual P.;
A. Dessier;
J. P. Rebert;
A. Sy;
K. Hanawa
1996 New Depth Equation for Sparton XBT-7 Expendable Bathythermographs; Preliminary Results International WOCE Newsletter, 24, 39-40 6.705 - 2.28 x 10-3t2   Sparton T7   Western Equatorial Pacific;
Western North Pacific;
Tropical Atlantic;
North-West Atlantic
Dec. 1992
Jun. 1995
Early 1993
Jun. 1993
18;
23;
11;
11 XBT/CTD
  35008818;
No;
35010077;
No
66 Zanasca P. 1996 On board XBTs Calibration NURC; La Spezia (Italy) Internal Notes (unpublished) 17 pp. 1) 6.342t - 2.58 x 10-3t2 - 6.342
2) 5.825t - 51.12 x 10-3t2 - 8.3131
  T7 R/V Alliance GIN Seas Aug. 1993 2 XBT/CTD Of two comparisons,
second XBT broke at 120 meters,
results need to be used with caution
Data acquired, not yet processed
67 Anonymous 1997 Fourth Meeting of the SOOPIP Ad hoc Task Team on Quality Control for Automated Systems (TT/QCAS) Cape Town, South Africa, 14-15 April 1997 Summary Report * IOC/INF-1074, Annex VII     Sparton T7 R/V Frankliln South-West of Australia 1996 12 XBT/CTD Also report of a 1996 cruise
aboard the Fua Kavenga where
12 Sippican T7 were dropped
with 12 Sparton T7
No
68 Maravelias Christos and
David G. Reid
1997 Identifying the effects of oceanographic features and zooplankton on prespawning herring abundance using generalized additive models Marine Ecology Progress Series, 147, 9-Jan     Sparton T7 Scotia Northern North Sea Jul. 8-25 1997 8 XBT/CTD   No
69 Aiken J. + 18 coauthors 1998 Volume 2; AMT-5 Cruise Report SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, 2, 8   +0.5 Sparton T7 James Clark Ross Atlantic Meridional Transect Sep. - Oct. 1997     74011946
70 Keisuke Mizuno and Tomowo Watanabe 1998 Preliminary results of in-situ XCTD/CTD comparison test Journal of Oceanography, Vol.54: 373 ? 380. D= 3.426t - 4.70 x 10-4 t2   XCTD   Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean November 1996, January 1997     74011946
71 Thadathil P.;
A. K. Ghosh and
P. M. Muraleedharan
1998 An evaluation of XBT depth equations for the Indian Ocean Deep-Sea Research, 45, 819-827 6.694 - 2.22 x 10-3t2   T7 Sagar Kanya Indian Ocean Feb. - Mar. 1996
Dec. 1996
Dec. 27 1996 - Jan. 2007
58 3 cruises IN000647;
41000645;
41000646
72 Ridgway Ken;
Rick Bailey and
Richard Coleman
1999 Tasman Sea Heat Transport/
Satellite Altimetry Verification
Cruise Summary: R/V Franklin, FR 02/99, 18 pp     T7; DB; T5 Franklin Coral Sea Mar. - Apr. 1999     09003288
73 Anonymous 2000 Franklin Voyage Summary No.FR09/2000 *         Franklin West of Australia Sep. - Nov. 2000 14 XBT/4 CTD   No
74 Schmeiser Greg 2000 XBT and CTD temperature measurement comparison; OC3570 Operational Oceanography Cruise; R/V Point Sur - 25 July 2000 through 1 August 2000 Unpublished manuscript  
25 - 125 m: +0.2198;
175 - 375 m: +0.1212;
0 - 760 m: +0.1549
T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay 25 Jul. - 1 Aug. 2000 19 XBT/CTD   US031231
75 Boedeker Scott 2001 Comparison of CTD and XBT temperature profiles; OC3570 Cruise; R/V Point Sur; 2-9 August 2001 *    
25 - 125 m: +0.1530;
175 - 375 m: +0.0549;
0 - 760 m: +0.0882
T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay 2-9 Aug. 2001 28 XBT/CTD   US031238
76 Roth Michael J. 2001 XBT and CTD temperature measurement comparison; quality of JJYY data and XBT data analysis of the mixed layer depth; OC3570 Operational Oceanography Cruise; R/V Point Sur 5-12 February 2001 *    
25 - 125 m: +0.0907;
175 - 375 m: +0.0851;
0 - 760 m: +0.0783
T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay Feb. 5-12 2001 10 XBT/CTD   US031233
77 Fang Chin-lung 2002 XBT/CTD Comparisons; OC3570 Operational Oceanography Cruise; R/V Point Sur 15-22 July 2002 *    
25 - 125 m: +0.2453;
175 - 375 m: +0.0802;
0 - 760 m: +0.1074
T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay Jul. 15-22 2002 29 XBT/CTD   US031239
78 Kizu Shoichi;
Kimio Hanawa (a)
2002 Start-up transient of XBT measurement Deep-Sea Research, 49, 935-940     DB; TSK T7   North Pacific North of 35°N 1998-2001 More than 2000 XBTs Startup transients for different recorders exceeds -0.02° for MK-130; MK-9< MK-12 in the top 2 meters; for Z-60-16:III in the top 3 meters. For Z-60-16 II the transient exceeds -0.1 in the top 10 meters Yes
79 Kizu Shoichi;
Kimio Hanawa (b)
2002 Recorder-dependent temperature error of expendable bathythermograph Journal of Oceanography, 58, 469-476     TSK T7; TSK T6; DB Hakuho Maru;
Tansei Maru
North Pacific 1985-2001 63 XBT/CTD + 1000 XBTs from database Recorder dependent errors sometimes occur with Z-60-16-II recorder or near equivalent; may increase with depth. May be bowing phenomenon due to current leakage No
80 Pingree Robin 2002 Ocean structure and climate (Eastern North Atlantic): in situ measurement and remote sensing (altimeter) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 82, 681-707     T5 R/V Hecla North Atlantic along 32°N Jun. 1996 260 XBT/CTD T5 data may have already been calibrated to CTD data 74011789
81 Thadathil Pankajakshan;
A. K. Saran;
V. V. Gopalakrishna;
P. Vethamony and
Nilesh Araligidad
2002 XBT fall rate in waters of extreme temperature: A case study in the Antarctic Ocean Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 19, 391-396 High latitudes:
6.472t+ 2.16 x 10-3t2
  T7 Polar Bird/
Aurora Australis
West South Indian/
South of Australia
Dec. 1998
Mar. 1999
Apr. 1993
7 XBT-CTD/
8 XBT-CTD
2 cruises 41000648; 09002856
82 Dixon Jeffrey; S. 2003 A comparison of expendable bathythermograph and conductivity temperature depth profiles; OC 3570 Operational Oceanography Cruise; 27 January to 3 February 2003 *    
25 - 125 m: +0.2366;
175 - 375 m: +0.1010;
0 - 760 m: +0.1275
T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay Jan. 27-Feb. 3 2003 26 XBT/CTD   US031242
83 Entriken Dennis 2003 National Ship-of-Opportunity Programme Coordination Panel (NSCP) Meeting Report *       T7, DB R/V Franklin Between Sydney and Hobart Apr. 2002 30 XBT from each of 3 different systems/
17 CTD
  09003673
84 Manzella G. M. R.;
E. Scoccimarro;
N. Pinardi;
M. Tonani
2003 Improved near-real time data management procedures for the Mediterranean Ocean forecasting system - Voluntary observing ship program Annales Geophysicue, 21, 49-62               XBTs are integral for assimilation into a Mediterranean OGCM X
85 Reseghetti F. 2003 Comparison between quasi-contemporaneous and co-located CTD and XBT measurements * MFS-TEP-VOS Technical Report, 1, 39 pp.   for DB +0.081
(with 4m cut +0.057)
T4;T6;T7;DB R/V Urania 1) Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea
2) Western Ligurian Sea
3) Central Ligurian Sea
1) Jan. 2001
2) Oct. 2002
3) May 2003
1) 4 XBT/CTD
2) 22 XBT/12 CTD
3) 11 XBT/9 CTD
  1) 48001605
2) 48001606
3) 48001597
86 Collins, Dr. Curtis 2004 XBT/CTD comparisons, Aug 2004       T7 Pt Sur Monterey Bay Aug 6-10, 2004 13 XBT/CTD   US031248
87 Miura T. et al. 2004 Depth error in time-depth equation of the T-5 XBT probes* JAMSTECR, 49, 73-80 6.622t - 2.30 x 10-3t2   TSK T5 Kakuyo Maru Near Okinawa Aug. 17-23 2003     XBT yes/ CTD no
49154178
88 Anonymous 2005 INSTANT Cruise Report Barunay Jaya VIII Nusa Tenggara Moorings and SPGA Legs 1 & 2 June 12 - July 16, 2005 *       DB Baruna Jaya VIII Indonesian Straits Jun. 16 - Jul. 6   Cruise report does not mention XBT/CTD comparison 42009066
89 Henigin Matt 2005 A Comparison of XBT and Triaxus data with implications for sound speed and salinity effect; OC3570 - Operational Oceanography; Winter 2005 Cruise Report; 1-8 February 2005 *       T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay Feb. 1-8 2005 20 XBT/undulating CTD Triaxus is a towed undulator. Depth errors and surface transients are found in the XBTs No
90 Kizu Shoichi;
Hiroyuki Yoritaka and
Kimio Hanawa
2005 A new fall-rate equation for T-5 expendable bathythermograph (XBT) by TSK Journal of Oceanography, 61, 115-121 6.54071t - 1.86 x 10-3t2   TSK T5 Hakuho-Maru; Wakataka-Maru; Alpha Helix; Kaiyo South East of Japan; Off Sanriku; Off Alaska; Off Mindanao Sep. 1994;
Jan.-Feb. 2002;
Jul.-Aug. 1995;
Jan. 1995
24;20;10;14 XBT/CTD No problems found with Sippican XBTs No (Data requested)
91 Kizu S.;
S. Ito and
T. Watanabe
2005 Inter-manufacturer differences and temperature dependency of the fall-rate of T-5 expendable bathythermograph Journal of Oceanography, 61, 905-912     T5; TSK T5 Soyo-Maru;
Wakataka-Maru
East of Japan Sep. 2003 23 of each T5/CTD Different fall rate equations for TSK; Sippican T-5s. Both affected by viscosity changes due to temperature changes; Sippican moreso No (Data requested)
92 Koso Y. et al. 2005 Application of the new depth conversion formula of XBT (T-5) Technical Bulletin of Hydrography and Oceanography, 23, 89-92 6.54071t - 1.86 x 10-3t2
(from Kizu et al. 2005)
  TSK T5 Kaiyo Off Miyagi Apr. 26 2004     XBT yes/CTD no
49033202
93 Schmid Claudia 2005 Impact of combining temperature profiles from different instruments on an analysis of mixed layer properties Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 22, 1571-1587         Worldwide 2001-2003 Profiling floats vs XBT Profiling floats and XBTs are consistent with each other if outliers are excluded with regards to calculating mixed layer depth X
94 Singh Manoj Kumar 2005 Variability in sound speed profiles derived from XBT data using salinity from T/S relationship and climatological normals vis-A-vis in situ CTD observations; OC35379 Operational Oceanography Cruise; R/V Point Sur; 18-20 July 2005 *       T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay       US031251
95 Poulain P. and
R. Barbanti
2005 Comparison between VOS/XBT and MED/ARGO temperatures * INOGS Report; Rel 61/2005-OGA-31, 18 pp   0.1°C for separation of less than 20km; 10 days
0.6°C for separation of less than 10 km; 5 days
DB   Mediterranean Sea Jul. 2004 - Jul. 2005 Profiling floats vs XBT   X
96 Laird Annie 2006 XBT and CTD temperature measurement comparison and XBT and GDEM sound velocity profile comparison; OC3570 Operational Oceanography and Meteorology; R/V Point Sur Cruise; 19 January 2006 - 26 January 2006 *    
25 - 125 m: +0.0760
175 - 375 m: +0.0453
0 - 760 m: +0.0407
T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay Jan. 19-26 2006 13 XBT/CTD   US031259
97 Ridderinkhof H. and
G. Quartly
2006 RRS Discovery Cruise Report: Cruise D301B and D302 Indian Ocean; 20 March - 11 April 2006 * NOCS cruise report, 12, 15-16     Sparton T7; Sippican T5 RRS Discovery Between South African and Madagascar Mar. 20 - Apr. 11 2006 1 Sparton T7;
1 Sippican T5 vs. 1 CTD each
  No
98 Archer, Eric 2007 STAR-LITE 2007: NOOA Ship David Starr Jordan Weekly Science Report         David Starr Jordan 107-103°W
12-17°N
Nov. 18-24 2007 8 XBT/CTD   No
99 Gourestki V. V. and
K. P. Koltermann
2007 How much is the ocean really warming? Geophysical Research Letters; doi: 10/29/2006 GL027834, 34   +0.2 to +0.4 on average           Statistical estimate using nearby CTDs (time and geographic). Biases are time and depth dependent X
100 Reseghetti F.;
M. Borghini and
G. M. R. Manzella
2007 Factors affecting the quality of XBT data - results of analyses on profiles from the Western Mediterranean Sea Ocean Science, 3, 59-75 T4: 6.570t - 2.220 x 10-3t2
DB: 6.720t - 2.235 x 10-3t2
T4: +0.029 +1.60 x 10-5z
DB: +0.039 +1.40 x 10-5z
T4;DB R/V Urania Mediterranean Sea May 2003 - Oct. 2004     48001597; 48001598; 48001599; 48001600; 48001601; 48001602
101 Vasquez E.;
J. Ameneiro;
S. Putzeys;
C. Gordo;
P. Sangra
2007 Distribution of meroplankton communities in the Bransfield Strait; Antarctica Marine Ecology Progress Series, 338, 119-129     T5 R/V Hesperides Bransfield Strait;
Antarctica
Dec. 30 2002 - Jan. 7 2003 7 XBT/CTD   29001280
102 Whelan John 2007 Comparison of CTD vs XBT data; OC3570 - Operational Oceanography and Meteorology; 23-30 January 2007 *     +0.0344 T7 Point Sur Monterey Bay Jan. 23-30 2007 25 XBT/CTD   US031262
103 Calder Brian R. and
James V. Gardner
2008 Cruise Report R/V Roger Revelle (AGOR-24) U.S. Law of the Sea Cruise to Map the Foot of the Slope of the Northeast U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin: Leg 6 *       FD; DB R/V Roger Revelle Between Ft. Lauderdale, FL and
Woods Hole, MA
May 1- 31 2008   Fast Deep start to diverge at depth; Deep Blue improves with depth No
104 Garay L. 2008 Oden Antarctic Expedition 07/Ms. Garays Journal *         Oden Ross Sea Jan. 2008     No
105 Gilson, J
D. Roemmich
G. Johnson
2008 Looking for ship-speed dependency of XBT fall rates XBT bias meeting     DB, T4 R/V Ron Brown Eastern Pacific Ocean Dec. 2007 - Jan. 2008 83 XBT/30 CTD Ship speed during drop does affect drop rate. 33002048
33002049
106 Gourestki V. 2008 Instrument related temperature bias and their impact on estimation of long term ocean temperature variability                 Statistical and model estimates combining time and depth dependent depth and temperature error corrections X
107 Haris Sarwar Rana 2008 Comparison of XBT vs CTD data *     T10: +0.0362;
T7/DB: 0.0712
T10; T7; DB Point Sur San Francisco Bay Jan. 23-30 2008 26 XBT/CTD   US031263
108 Machin F.
M. Emelianov
P. Rodriguez
E. Garcia-Ladona
Jordi Salat
2008 XBT profilers for operational purposes: application and validation in real exercises Scientia Marina, 72, 779-799 p.     T10; T7   North of Spain along 41° 25W May 2006   CTDs and XBTs are reasonably similar when plotting transects of each; but not exact 29001279
109 Reverdin G. and
F. Marin
2008 French oceanographic cruises XBT bias meeting               Numerous French cruises which dropped XBTs inbetween CTD stations  
110 Snowden Derrick;
Gustavo Goni and
Molly Baringer
2008 Revisiting the XBT fall rate equation (Sippican Deep Blue): Implications and recommendations XBT bias meeting
rvyf: 6.487 - 1.91 x 10-3t2
rvyf: 6.639 - 2.99 x 10-3t2 - 4.5117
pne07: 6.5752 - 2.50 x 10-3t2
pne07: 6.5644 - 2.43 x 10-3t2 + 0.3312
nf0705: 6.4901 - 2.60 x 10-3t2
nf0705: 6.7586 - 4.41 x 10-3t2 - 8.4701
rb98: 6.5387 - 1.72 x 10-3t2
rb98: 6.6181 - 2.32 x 10-3t2 - 2.1887
  DB
rvyf: R/V Yellowfin
pne07: R/V Ron Brown
nf0705: Nancy Foster
rb98: R/V Ron Brown
rvyf: off of San Diego
pne07: Equatorial Atlantic
nf0705: East of Hispaniola
rb98: Transect along 24° N in the Atlantic
rvyf: Jun. 21-22 2005
pne07: May 7-23 2007
nf0705: Apr. 5 2007
rb98: Feb. 3-15 1998
rvyf: 63 XBT/7 CTD
pne07: 18 XBT/37 CTD
nf0705: 11 XBT/1 CTD
rb98: 18 XBT/37 CTD
Depth equations calculated with and without an initial depth offset.
The data for the XBT's was replaced on this website and in the World Ocean Database on March 9, 2010.
Prior to that the depths were incorrect due to our conversion error.
rvyf: US025260
pne07: US028145
nf0705: US002043
rb98: US014526
rb07:US028147
111 Wijffels S. E.;
J. Willis;
C. M. Domingues;
P. Barker;
N. J. White;
A. Gronell;
K. Ridgway and
J. A. Church
2008 Changing eXpendable Bathythermograph fall-rates and their impact on estimates of thermosteric sea rise In press         Coral Sea/Tasman Sea 2001   Statistical estimates of depth error corrections. Used Coral Sea cruise for validation 09003653
112   2008         DB   Between Tasmania and Antarctica Mar. 23 - Apr. 15 2008     09009507
113 Collins, Dr. Curtis 2009 XBT/CTD comparisons, Jul 2009       T7 Pt Sur Monterey Bay Jul 26-28, 2009 34 XBT/CTD   US031273
114 G. Reverdin, F. Martin, B. Bourles, P. Lherminier 2009 XBT temperature Errors during French Research Vruises (1999 - 2007) Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol 26, doi:10.1175/2009JTECHO655.1     DB/T7   Northeast Atlantic and Equatorial Atlantic 199-2007 34 XBT/CTD   US031273
115   2009 Voyage Report:
Deep Ocean Time Series
Section - Repeat Section P15, 38pp.
      DB Southern Surveyor line P15 Feb. 3 - Mar. 24, 2009 194 XBT
15 CTD
  AU003871
116 Collins, Dr. Curtis 2010 XBT/CTD comparisons, Jul 2010       T7 Pt Sur Monterey Bay Jul 12-21, 2010 22 XBT/CTD   US031274
117 DiNezio P.N. and G. J. Goni 2010 Identifying and Estimating Biases between XBT and Argo Observations Using Satellite Altimetry Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, doi: 10.1175/JTECH0711.1           2000 - 2007 XBT and Argo observations   Comparison of XBT and Argo estimates of isotherm suggests a depth dependant bias in XBT observations in all regions of the world ocean  
118 Sangra Inciarte Pablo 2010 XBT logbook from COUPLING project       DB Hesperides West Antarctic Peninsula Jan 15 -21, 2010 18 XBT
23 CTD
Cold water XBT comparison.
Use attached document for XBT quality, comparison information
ES001503
119 Abraham J, J. Gorman,
F. Reseghetti, K. Trenberth,
W.J. Minkowycz
2011 A new method of calculating Ocean temperatures using Expendable Bathythermographs Energy and Environment Research, 1:1     T4/T6/T7/DB         The method used in this study is based on a dynamic model of an XBT probe which includes drag, buoyancy and inertia and is able to be used independent of a fall-rate equation (FRE).  
120 DiNezio P.N. and G. J. Goni 2011 Direct evidence of a changing Fall-Rate Bias in XBTs Manufactured during 1986-2008 Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00017.1               This paper presents direct evidence of systematic depth errors consistent with a fall-rate bias in 52 temperature profiles collected using XBTs  
121 Uchida H., K. Shimada,
T. Kawano
2011 A Method for Data Processing to Obtain High-Quality XCTD Data Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol 28:6, doi:10.1175/2011JTECHO795.1     XCTD type: TSK XCTD-1 and XCTD-2   Pacific Ocean 15-20 September 2002, 12-14 August 2007   A data processing method for obtaining high-quality XCTD data is proposed.  
122 Stark J, J. Gorman,
M. Hennessey, F. Reseghetti,
J. Willis, J. Lyman,
J. Abraham; M. Borghini
2011 A computational method for determining XBT depths Ocean Science, 7:733-743     T5            
123 Yasunaka S, M.Y. Ishii,
M. Kimoto, T. Mochizuki,
H. Shiogama
2011 Influence of XBT Temperature Bias on Decadal Climate Prediction with a Coupled Climate Model. Journal of climate, 24:5303-5308                  
124 Goes M., Gustavo Goni,
Klaus Keller
2012 Reducing biases in XBT measurements by including discrete information from pressure switches Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00126.1               This study provides and approach for correcting XBT depth bias using a discrete number of pressure switch instruments.  
125 Xiao H., X. Zhang 2012 Numerical investigation of the fall rate of a sea-monitoring probe Ocean Engineering, 56:20-27     Experimental probe designed by National Ocean Technology Centre, China         Drop height and mass reduction (due to wire payout) have a great influence on the fall rate and terminal velocity of the probe.  
126 Wei-Shan C., L. Meng-de, L. Zhuo 2012 Research on the computational approach of falling depth of an expendable bathythermograph probe in seawater Shandong Science, 25:5     Experimental probe designed by National Ocean Technology Centre, China         The experiment shows that the average error of the falling depth is within 2%, as compared with a standard conductance-temperature-depth instrument.  
127 K Hutchinson, S. Swart,
I. J. Ansorge, G. J. Goni
2013 Exposing XBT bias in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean Deep Sea Research I Sippican eqn       Atlantic sector of Southern Ocean   148    
128 Anderson E.R. 1980 Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) Accuracy studies Naval Ocean systems center, Technical report 550       Lee, De Steiguer, Cape, Moana Wave     1961 460-m XBTs and 26 1830-m XBT profiles    
129 AODC 1994 Guide to XBT faults and features for the MK12 digital recorder Australian Oceanographic Data Center, 34 pp.               Examination of problems found in XBT data as well as real oceanogrpahic features which can be mistaken for problems. X
130 Bailey R.;
A. Gronell;
H. Phillips;
E. Tanner and
G. Meyers
1994 Quality control cookbook for XBT data (Expendable Bathythermograph data) CSIRO Marine Laboratories Report, 221, 46 pp.               Step-by-step procedures for processing XBT data X
131 AODC 1999 Guide to MK12 - XBT system (including launching; returns; and faults) Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC) METOC Services, 63 pp.                 X
132 Thadathil P.;
A. K. Ghosh;
J. Pattanaik and
L. Ratnakaran
1999 A quality control procedure for surface temperature and surface layer inversion in the XBT dat archive from the Indian Ocean Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16, 980-982                 X
133 AODC 2001 Expendable bathythermographs (XBT) delayed mode quality control manual Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC); Data Management Group; Technical Manual, 1/2001, 24 pp.               Quality control checking of XBT data X
134 Cook S.;
A. Sy
2001 Best guide and principles manual for the ships of opportunity program (SOOP) and expendable bathythermograph (XBT) operations Prepared for the IOC-WMO-3rd Session of the JCOMM Ship of Opportunity Implementation Panel (SOOPIP-III); March 28-31; 2000; La Jolla; California; U.S.A, 26 pp.               Guide for recruiting and supplying ships of opportunity; launching XBT and quality controlling data X
135 Maillard C.;
M. Fuchaut;
H. Dooley
2001 MEDAR-MEDATLAS Protocol. Part I Exchange format and quality checks for observed profiles Rap. Int. TMSI/IDM/SISMER/SIS00-084, 49 pp.               Guide for quality controlling and disseminating Mediterranean XBT data X
136 Thadathil P.;
A. K. Ghosh;
J. S. Sarupria and
V. V. Gopalakrishna
2001 An interactive graphical system for XBT data quality control and visualization Computers and Geosciences, 27, 867-876                 X
137 AODC 2002 Marine QC Australian Oceanographic Centre (AODC); Data Management Group Technical Manual, 1/2002, 61 pp.                 X
138 DODC-DHG 2006 Guide to MK-12 XBT System* DODC Technical Publication, 02/2006               Detailed guide to Sippican XBT and MK12 system and possible problems with both. Also includes examples of good data which appears to have problems. X
139 Tore Stromme et al. 2008 Cruise reports "Dr. Fridtjof Nansen" Preliminary cruise report No 7/2008     DB     8 October - 27 November 2008 25 XBTs, 175 CTDs   X


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